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Bulgarian Journal of Crop Science   ISSN 0568-465X
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Virus diseases on some vegetable fruits from Solanaceae family
Bistra Dikova
Abstract: Fruits of different varieties and types of tomato and pepper are very often with bad market appearance, caused by virus diseases. Viral pathogens put and cover entire tomato, pepper and eggplant plants and damage ripening fruits which become not good for markets, because they are mottled by mild or severe yellow spots, flecks, mosaic, line patterns and manifest deformations and often decreased sizes. The symptoms of virus diseases on the fruits of tomato, pepper and eggplant were observed in 2018 and six viral pathogens: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato virus X (PVX) were analyzed by ELISA method (DAS-ELISA).The indicator method, basing on the reaction of indicator (test) plants was used for three, more wide spread viruses: TSWV, ToMV and CMV. The results have shown: TSWV was established in 30 fruits, CMV – in 19 fruits, ToMV – in 17 fruits, PVY- in 12 fruits, PVX - in 6 fruits and AMV – in 3 fruits, from all 49 tomato, pepper and eggplant fruits, bought from different markets and belonging to different production areas. Severe injuries with viral origin were proven on pink tomatoes, where TSWV and ToMV in mixed infection or only TSWV alone were the basic agents, responsible for the damages. Both viruses: the thrips-transmitted TSWV and the mechanically-transmitted ToMV were in very high viral concentration in pink tomato fruits, whereas CMV, PVY, PVX and AMV were sporadically spread and in more low viral concentration. The major virus, responsible for the injuries on pepper fruits (kapia and kamba types) was the thrips-transmitted TSWV, alone or in mixed infection most often with aphidtransmitted viruses - CMV and PVY. Healthy fruits of tomato, pepper and eggplant (without symptoms of virus diseases) could be produced when the effective control against TSWV, ToMV, CMV and PVY carry out.
Keywords: tomato; pepper; eggplant; viruses; TSWV; ToMV; CMV; PVY
Date published: 2019-06-03
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