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Bulgarian Journal of Crop Science   ISSN 0568-465X
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Achievements and tendencies in the breeding of triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) in Bulgaria
Hristo Stoyanov, Valentin Baychev
Abstract: Breeding of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) in Bulgaria has a history of more than 50 years. As a result of the experience in the breeding of this crop, the hexaploid secondary winter triticale forms are primarily used in Bulgaria. During the last decade, 11 cultivars were registered, which were distributed according to the specific soil and climatic conditions of the country. With the aim to determine their specific response to the growing conditions, their development during nine economic years was followed in a competitive varietal trial. The parameters days to heading, plant height, number of productive tillers per square meter, absolute and relative yield, number of grains per spike, weight of grains per spike, 1000 kernel weight and test weight were studied. Based on the obtained results, the main tendencies demonstrated by the investigated parameters were formulated. The eleven studied cultivars had later heading in comparison to the average standard (formed by the values of cultivars Vihren and Rakita) and followed a tendency toward lower plant height. In contrast to the standard cultivar Lasko and cultivar Presto, the yield from cultivars Kolorit, Akord, Respekt, Bumerang, Irnik, Dobrudzhanets, Doni 52 and Blagovest was formed mainly by the greater number of grains per spike and the 1000 kernel weight, while the number of productive tillers was of secondary importance. Cultivars Atila, Lovchanets and Borislav were exceptions from this tendency. During the investigated 9-year period, all cultivars exceeded the average standard and Lasko by yield with 9-20%, and Presto – with 5-13%. These results make triticale breeding in Bulgaria very promising, with a tendency toward an on-going increase of the productivity potential of this crop.
Keywords: Bulgarian triticale cultivars; competitive varietal trial; triticale breeding
Date published: 2023-08-24
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